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Liners with Bulk Metallic Glass/High Entropy Alloy, Degradable in Formation Fluids for a Skin Free, Clear, Perforating Tunnel, Enabling Enhanced Reservoir Connectivity

Abstract: A shaped charge for wellbore perforation includes a solid metal or powder liner pressed onto a case, sandwiching high explosives which may have varying thermal stability, dictated by the expected time of exposure and bottom hole temperature (BHT). It is common knowledge that post detonation, the liner-jet punctures the gun body and casing, continuing forward to perforate the formation until its eventual collapse. The jet debris is deposited on the crushed zone forming an impermeable skin and a slug at the end of the perforation-tunnel. This reduces fracture conductivity, and thus, production. Here we present a game changing innovation, the development of a shaped charge with a novel responsive liner. The jet created from our novel degradable liner, post detonation punctures the casing and progress to penetrate the formation until an eventual collapse. However, this system is designed so that, during detonation, a water disintegrable reaction product, bulk metallic glasses (BMG) and/or high entropy alloys (HEA), are formed. These degradable BMG/HEA or complexions decorate the grain boundaries and domain interfaces of the impermeable skin lining the crushed zone of the perforation tunnel as amorphous intergranular films (AIFs) and plug at end of the pathway. Interacting with flowback fluids the BMG/HEA promotes grain dropping, disintegrating the liner and carrot leaving behind a clean perforation tunnel, improving fracture conductivity thus enhanced productivity. In addition, a clear perf tunnel has zero skin value. As such, compared to a coated tunnel with gun and charge debris, it needs little or no acid to clean-up. This results in a demarked reduction of formation breakdown pressures with improved economics for the client. Last but not least this leads to cost reduction of authorized field expenditure (AFE) to support optimized performance of completion design allowing for increased production. CLEAR shaped charges have been qualified to customer specifications in field conditions and are ready to be commercialized. An extension of this technology is being applied to design charges for “Big-Hole” perforations, for the Plug and Abandonment (P&A) market where an effective cement squeeze, anchoring a plug effectively seals the wellbore, preventing the leakage of residual hydrocarbon and associated contamination and emissions.

Technical Paper: SPE-205902-MS, available on OnePetro